The Cultural-Racial Identity Model is a framework for understanding the complex identity experiences of transracial and international adoptees. Developed in 1995 and published in 2000, this framework has been used in a variety of research and continues to be referenced to improve our understanding of how adoptees make sense of their lived cultural experiences and their birth cultural. To further explain how adoptees identify, see Baden’s work on reculturation.
Baden, A. L., & Steward, R. J. (2007). The Cultural-Racial Identity Model: A theoretical framework for studying transracial adoptees. In R. A. Javier, A. L. Baden, F. A. Biafora, & A. Camacho-Gingerich (Eds.) Handbook of adoption: Implications for Researchers, practitioners, and families (pp. 90-112). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Baden, A. L. (2002). The psychological adjustment of transracial adoptees: An application of the Cultural-Racial Identity Model. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 11, 167-192.
Baden, A. L., & Steward, R. J. (2000). A framework for use with racially and culturally integrated families: The Cultural-Racial Identity Model as applied to transracial adoptees [Special Issue: Adoption]. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 9, 309-337.